Yogashastra most authentic and scientific – Yogaratna Gopalakrishna
In the Yougashastra classics, the Yogashastra by Patanjali is considered as the most authentic and most scientific. The great sage Patanjali has given 195/196 Sutras and this yoga sutra has 4 chapters. This great sage codified and classified the ancient science systematically and gave a proper shape to it. The four chapters are.
1. Samadi Pada (51 Sutras)
2. Sadhana pada (55 Sutras).
3. Vibhuti Pada (55 Sutras)
4. Kaivalya Pada (35 Sutras).
There is a record that sage Patanjali renewed yoga sutras in the 3rd century B.C.
The word ‘yoga’ has come from the Dhatu “Yuj” Means the process of uniting Jeevatma with Paramatma is yoga. In Patanjali Maharshi yoga 5 types of mental conditions which bring happiness or sadness are listed.
1. (Quantity) Pramana.
2. Viparyaya (wrong understanding)
3. Vikalpa (Faulty imagination).
5. Vismruti (non-awareness)
5 obstacles for practicing yoga are:
1. Avidya (Lack of education)
2. Asmita (Pride)
3. Raga (love)
4. Dwesha (hatred)
5. Abhinivesha (No interest in worldly life)
What is yoga?
“Mahatma Gandhi says’,
“The union of all the powers of the body, mind and soul with the God is yoga”.
There are 4 types of yoga – Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga and Raja Yoga. Controlling the desires and achieving concentration is the essence of yoga. According to sage Patanjali, there are 8 steps in yoga they are.
1. yama 2. Niyama 3. Asana 4. Pranayama
5. Pratyahara 6. Dharana 7. Dhyana 8. Samadhi
Definitions of yoga
– According to Shandilya Upanishad
– According to Bhagavadgita,
– Achieving mental balance in yoga.
– According to sage Patanjali,
– Achieving concentration by controlling all the desires.
– According to Swamy Vivekananda.
– “Disciplining the mind is yoga”.
– “Holding the wavering mind in one place is yoga”
– Getting released from pain and sadness is yoga (Geeta-6)
– Achieving which can’t be achieved is yoga and saving what one gets from achieving is ‘Kshema’.
– Efforts to gain Anand Swaroop is yoga.
Achievers in yoga
1. Jnana yoga: Jagadguru Swamy Sri Bharatikrishna Tirtha Swamy Rama Tirtha, Shankaracharya, Madhwacharya, Jnanadeva, Ramanujacharya, Kabir, Allama Prabhu.
2. Bhakti Yoga : Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Mirabai, Kanakadasa, Purandaradasa, Tulsidas, Bhakta Kumbara.
3. Karma Yoga : Gandhiji, Vishveshwarayya, Mother Theresa.
4. Raja Yoga : Sri Aurobindo, Swamy Vivekananda, Dr Radhakrishnan, Sri Raghavendra Swamy.
Man learnt to fly like birds but has not learnt to live as a human being.
Eight steps in Yoga:
Yama (Mental Control)
By following the first step in yoga mental purity and moral upliftment can be achieved. This is applicable not only to an individual but to a society as a whole. Five sutras are to be followed in Yama. They are
1. Ahimsa (non-violence)
2. Satya (Truth)
3. Asteya (non stealing)
4. Aparigraha (storing things)
1. Ahimsa (non-violence): not causing physical or mental violence. Treating all with love and faith. Not causing any pain to anyone Having the quality of forgiveness.
2. Satya (Truth): By Satya, an individual can be a yogi. According to Gandhiji. “Truth is God and god is Truth”. By following the path of satya it will be easy to practice yoga.
3. Asteya: Nonstealing and not wishing for others objects. Not using the things which do not belong to us or to take anything forcibly from others. Be satisfied with what you have and get peace and contentment.
4. Aparigraha: Collecting things which are not required at the given time. On must not get anything without efforts. A yogi must lead a simple life and he should be free from any attachment. As the desires decrease, happiness and peace increase.
5. Brahmacharya: Means controlling sense organs, study of spiritual classics and controlling the soul. According to Shankaracharya one who is involved in the study of scriptures and who finds God in all is a Brahmachari. According to Patanjali Physical, mental and speech control is Brahmacharya. A good mental condition is Brahmacharya. If Rajasa or Tamasa food is consumed by the youngsters, their resistance power (immunity) decreases and if such impotent men get married, marital happiness will not be there. The message of Swamy Shivananda is ‘potency is life and impotency is death’. Therefore only Satwika food must be consumed. Devotion to God study of the Vedas and control of the sense organs makes one a Brahmachari.
Niyama (Physical Process)
The second step of yoga process is Niyama (happiness, meditation, sacrificing everything to God, self-study). By this, the mental and physical condition improves providing a sound health. Sage Patanjali has mentioned five rules in Niyama.
1. Shoucha: Keeping the body clean for a better life, a yogi should take bath twice a day and keep all the organs of the body near and tidy. He must have good thoughts good and clean food. He must have earned that food in the right path.
2. Happiness: One must try to keep one’s mind happy and contented always one can’t get concentration if one has no satisfaction – one must have a balanced mind.
3. Tapas (meditation): the word ‘Tapas’ is originated from the word ‘Tap its objective is to achieve a particular goal. Having inclination towards god if one does one’s work, sacrificing everything to God, it is Tapas. One need not go to a forest or wear a beard to do Tapas.
4. Swadhyaya: means reading good books, contemplation of good thoughts, having company of good people, reading the holy book to purify the mind, reading spiritual books by which one’s mind will be full of good thoughts which mingle with one’s blood. By this, there won’t be any place for bad thoughts. In Swadhyaya one can learn or teach.
5. Praneedhana: One must sacrifice one’s work to God. Whatever difficulties or losses one faces in life should be left to God and one must try to solve them having faith in God. One must give up pride and surrender to God. By Praneedhana one sacrifices his happiness or difficulties to God. When one has the faith that God looks after everything, there won’t be changes in Blood pressure.
The third step in yoga process is Asana. Means constant, comfortable different poses of the body are Yogasana”. In Yogasanas systematic movement of the body with the breath is involved by bending or twisting one’s body, the internal organs, nervous system and muscles. The third step in yoga process is Asana. Means constant, comfortable different poses of the body are Yogasana”. In Yogasanas systematic movement of the body gets enough relief and becomes active and powerful by which blood circulation and digestion becomes systematic and complete. Yogasanas make the organs of one’s body lighter, active and healthy. They develop knowledge of anatomy which is scientific. The processes of Yogasanas lungs, heart and brain, increase concentration power and bring the organs of one’s body under one’s control. Immunity grows and ailments are cured without medicines or medical operations. Besides, a practitioner of yoga will be a cultured citizen. One can have a beautiful shape for one’s body.
– Yogasanas can be practiced by children, women, young men and old people.
– People belonging to any caste or religion can practice them.
– In order to achieve 4 Purusarthas-Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha to the body means, such body should be brought under our control. Yoga is the means to achieve it. It makes one’s body lustrous and young, making the mind calm by happiness.
– Yoga is the means to increase the immunity of the body.
– For other physical exercises, a vast place and a lot of expenses are to be increased. But yogasanas can be practiced without incurring heavy expenses. If one develops one’s organs, alertness, patience and more poser can be gained, the concentration required for gaining knowledge increases.
– Internal and external parts of a yoga practitioner get cleansed. By the control of breath, there will be the benefit of pranayama.
– Blood circulation becomes easier.
– Dangerous diseases can be cured without pain to the body and without expenses.
– One can be ever young increasing the life span.
– By increasing immunity one can be free from diseases and can live longer and happy without depending on others.
– Instead of depending on medical operations, one can increase the power of the organs naturally. On can gain good health without any expenditure. Without any adverse effect, one can control one’s mind and one can progress spiritually.
– Students can increase their concentration power, can achieve progress in the field of education easily through Yogasanas.
by Yogaratna Gopalakrishna Delampady
Retd Senior Health Inspector, International Yoga Refree
‘Parijata’, Padavu, Konchadi Post,
Mangalore – 575 008
Mobile: 9448394987 [1pm to 3pm]